GUILLAUME DUCHENNE DE BOULOGNE
French (Boulogne-sur-Mer 1806 – Paris 1875)
A medical doctor, neurophysiologist, as well as an innovative photographer, Duchenne de Boulogne was one of the first to use photographs to illustrate the course of disease. In 1862 he published Mécanisme de la physionomie humaine, ou analyse électrophysiologique des passions, a pioneering album on the diagnosis of muscle movements caused by electrical stimulation. Initiated in photography by A. Tournachon, Nadar's younger brother, in 1853, he created a grammar of human physiognomies by the action of electrical pulses on the human face. These experiments demonstrated facial contractions and their corresponding expressions (joy, pain, contempt, fear), graphically illustrating his fascinating photographs. Subsequent researchers (Darwin) acknowledged his research and their debt to his work.